Gilliandr's Blog

Random Historical, Social and Cultural Moments


Frederick Pauline Sr

Family Album of a Centennial Pioneer, 1966

Daily Colonist 31 July 1966


Jim Nesbitt Browses through Family Album of a Centennial Pioneer


Recently I spent a happy two hours poking through the Gardiner family album in the possession of Mrs. THE Jones, 1044 Pendergast Street, a peppy lady, who is a registered Centennial Pioneer for Canada’s 100th birthday party next year.

Mr. and Mrs. Jones keep in trim by taking walks every afternoon, rain or shine, along the Dallas Road waterfront and through Beacon Hill Park.

“I’ve been going there since was two, and that’s a long time ago,” says Mrs. Jones.  “There’s no more beautiful spot this whole wide, wonderful world.”

That, you see is the loyalty of a native daughter of Victoria.

Mrs. Jones is a granddaughter of Capt. John Allan Gardiner, who came here more than a century ago.  Her father was Charles Frederick Gardiner, and his brother was George, and they married sisters – the daughters of Frederick Pauline, who lived at the turn of the century in the old John Tod House at the Willows, a house still standing, and willed to the Victoria section of the British Columbia Historical Association.  It is now occupied by Mrs. TC Evans.

For many years Charles and George Gardiner and their families lived in homes that backed on each other – George on Pockington Street, facing south, and Charles on Fairfield Road, facing north.  The Charles Gardiner house is gone now, but the George Gardiner house stands yet, now an apartment.

Capt. John Allan Gardiner was a popular seaman in this port, a great spinner of tall tales of salt waters around the pot-bellied stove in McQuade’s ship chandlery shop down on the waterfront, where the sealers and the seamen gathered each day.

When he died here in 1899, the Colonist said of him: “Another familiar face to every old resident of the city will be missed by those who had learned to love its friendly lines, Capt. John Allan Gardiner having passed to the great majority.  The deceased was a native of Newport, Rhode Island, his ancestors having crossed the Atlantic on the Mayflower to Plymouth Rock; he came to Victoria during the gold excitement of the early sixties, and at the time of his death was in his 64th year.

“Capt. Gardiner, who lived on Labouchere Street (Now Fairfield Road) was connected with British Columbia coast navigation here for the past 30 years, during which time he commanded steamers, among them being the California, an American vessel trading between Portland and Sitka, the British steamers Fidelita, Otter and Enterprise, and others.  He was also at one time in the employ of the United States government, engaged in survey work in northern waters, and at different times acted as pilot for British men-of-war going north.  He leaves four sons and three daughters.  His wife died a few years ago.”

“The funeral took place from his Labouchere Street home to the Reformed Episcopal Church, with Rev John Reid officiating, and burial was in Ross Bay Cemetery – very many old friends attending to pay their last tribute of respect to their old companion of early days.  The following gentlemen acted as pallbearers: EA McQuade, Thomas Earle, Charles A Lombard, Edgar Marvin, WT Drake and Henry Waller.”

Mrs. Jones’ parents were married here in September of 1890, as noted in the Colonist: “Still another of Victoria’s fair daughters has bestowed her hand and heart upon the object of her affections, and Mr. Charles Frederick Gardiner, and Miss Amy Pauline, daughter of Mr. Frederick Pauline, were made one before the altar of Christ Church Cathedral.  Rev Mr. Kingham officiating.  “The bride, who was elegantly attired, was attended by Miss Florence Pauline, Miss Abbie Gardiner, Miss Violet Pauline, Miss S Pauline, Miss Nellie Pauline and Miss Polly Pauline, the last two named juveniles deporting themselves in the most staid and dignified manner, appearing to fully appreciate the importance of the life contract at whose assumption they were assisting.

Mr. P Lowe acted as best man, the bride being given away by her father.  After the ceremony the wedding party adjourned to the house of the bride’s father, where a merry concourse sat down to the wedding feast, and shared in the subsequent festivities.

“Later the newly made man-and-wife left by the steamer North Pacific for the Sound and San Francisco. They are attended by the best of wishes of a large circle of friends.”

One of Capt. Gardiner’s daughters was married here in December of 1887: “Wedding bells – Mr. Alfred Nelson Codrington King, cashier at the Moodyville Saw Mill Company, was united in marriage to Miss Clara Amy, eldest daughter of Capt. John Allan Gardiner of this city.

“The ceremony was performed at Capt. Gardiner’s residence, Rev Percival Jenns of St John’s Church officiating.  The bride’s sister, Miss EJ Gardiner, was bridesmaid, and Mr. J Carsman ably supporting the groom.

“Only the immediate friends of the high contracting parties were present.  The happy couple departed later in the steamer Olympia for the Sound.  They will take up their residence at Port Moody.”

(Mrs. Ernest Ware, 310 Linden Avenue, is a daughter of this marriage.  Her mother was born in Valparaiso and came here to live as a child.)

The pictures on this page are from Mrs. Jones’ family album and she has now presented them to the Provincial Archives, so that this bit of the history of Victoria may be preserved for all time.


New Blog – The Amazing Paulin(e) Family, 2019


Following the successful family reunion held this July in Victoria, I have taken the initiative to create a new website called “The Amazing Paulin(e) Family” where in future my research for the Paulin family will be featured.

It was a bit of a difficult decision for me to split my work from my main blog, but after talking with a number of family members it seemed like a necessary thing.  So I have created this new website as a means for all of the family to go for information on the family, and also for them to come and post their material. So this blog/website is not a gilliandr website per se, but a Paulin family collaboration.

The site is organised around the descendants of Frederick Paulin(e) and his wife Mary Cutler.  Each child has their own page, and there is a drop down being created for each of their children.  I will limit the categories to grandchildren because of privacy concerns.

My first load of content in the blog part of the site is the transcription of a number of letters written by Ernest Alfred Paulin to his brother Frederick Arthur Pauline between 1884-1912, which were kept by Frederick, and lent to me by his descendants, the Cormack Family.  They are awesome reads.

A lot of the pages are just placeholders right now, and will be updated with content when time and information allows.  This is a collaborative effort, and I welcome all suggestions, submissions, and so forth.

Obit – Mary Cutler Pauline, 1921

Victoria Times, 7 August 1921, page 9


Mrs. Mary Pauline died last night

Mother of Saanich MPP called by death at ripe age


A well-known Victoria family has suffered its second bereavement within a few weeks in the death of Mrs. Mary Pauline, widow of the late Frederick Pauline, who passed away last night at the residence of her daughter Mrs. CF Gardiner, 1020 Fairfield Road.

The late Mrs. Pauline was born in Kew, England, and was 84 years 7 months old at the time of her death.  She had been a resident of this city for the last thirty-four years, and was esteemed by a wide circle of old-time friends.  One of her sons, George Pauline, the organist, pre-deceased her some days ago and the shock of his death undoubtedly hastened her end.

She is survived by three sons, FA Pauline, MPP for Saanich; Herbert W and JA Pauline of Victoria, also seven daughters, Mrs. Goodwin, Mrs. CP Gardiner, Mrs. GA Gardiner, Mrs. H Short, Mrs. RH Williams, Mrs. (Capt.) Le Praik, and Mrs. DL Hickey of this city.  The remains will repose at the BC Funeral Chapel until Wednesday morning, when they will be conveyed to the residence of Mrs. CF Gardiner, 1020 Fairfield Road, from where the funeral will leave at 10.45, proceeding to Christ Church Cathedral for the services at 11 o’clock.  Internment will be made in the family plot at Ross Bay Cemetery.

mary paulin and kid
Mary Paulin and child, circa 1860-70s, c. Kathleen Paulin

Dictionary of Family Biography – Mary Cutler Paulin

Dictionary of Family Biography

Mary Cutler Paulin (1836-1921)

mary paulin and kid
Mary Paulin and child, circa 1860-70s, c. Kathleen Paulin

Mary Cutler was born the 26th of December 1836 in Kew, England, the youngest child of John Cutler and his wife Louisa Freak.  At the time of her birth, her father John was described as a gentleman, and had started to assume control of the Windsor and Eton Waterworks, a family business he had inherited from his uncle William Henry Cutler.  Louisa had four full siblings, Elizabeth, Fanny, Louisa and William Henry Cutler, and a half-brother Edward Francis Meynell Cutler. Mary grew up in Camberwell, Surrey, Kew and Esher Kent, before moving to St Pancras in London.   Mary was literate, signing her marriage certificate in a sure hand.  There is no indication if she received any formal education, nor what level of literacy she had.

Not much is known about Mary’s childhood.  I would appear that sometime following her birth her parents separated, and her older siblings were in the custody of her father, who then moved temporarily to Eton.  John Cutler died in 1843, when Mary was 7 years old. In her father’s will her mother was given sole custody of Mary, while her siblings are compelled to live with her father’s sister Elizabeth Cutler Bennison, with financial penalties if they were seen to live near or associate with her mother.  Her mother had moved to Esher, Kent by 1848, and had an illegitimate son, Edward, who was baptised there.

In September 1860, at the age of 24, Mary had her first child, Louisa Mary, with Frederick Paulin.  It is unclear how Mary met Frederick, a native of Henley-on-Thames.  Louisa was registered as Louisa Cutler with her father listed as Frederick Cutler.  Her full name at registration was Louisa Mary Paulin Cutler. It is probable that the couple lived with Mary’s mother while in London.  Mary and Frederick married in February 1861, seven months before the birth of their second son Frederick.  They were married at St Pancras, in London, and appear to have moved soon after to the Henley-on-Thames area.  They were enumerated in the 1861 census in Remenham, Berkshire, living with Mary’s mother and her half brother.  By 1871 they family, including Louisa, had moved into Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire, as neighbours to Frederick’s parents.

Between 1860 and 1879 Mary and her husband Frederick had thirteen children: Louisa (1860), Frederick (1861), George (1863), Ernest (1864), Herbert (1866), Bessie (1868), Amy (1869), Florence (1871), Violet (1873), Sarah (1874), Marion (1875), John (1877) and Nellie (1879).  All of her children survived infancy and into adulthood.  There is no indication that there were other births.

The family moved to Peckham, near London in 1874 when Frederick Paulin purchased the Anchor Brewery there.  A number of her mother’s family lived in the Peckham-Camberwell area, and her mother moved with the family.  Louisa Freak died later that year, leaving her daughter a fairly decent financial legacy.  This came at a time when Frederick was finding his Peckham venture was not as successful as hoped.  This probably was the family’s salvation. After Frederick declared bankruptcy, the family moved to the West Midlands, living in Dudley, then Prince’s End, Gospel End and Acock’s Green.

In 1884 two of her sons, Frederick and George emigrated to Canada, settling in Victoria, British Columbia.  They were followed by Herbert, Ernest and his wife Emma in 1886.  The rest of the family with the exception of her daughter Louisa, emigrated in 1888.  Mary, Frederick and the younger children moved into the historic Tod House in Oak Bay, just outside of Victoria in 1890, where they stayed until her husband died in 1918.  Mary then moved in with her daughter, Amy and her husband Charles Frederick Gardiner.  It is there she died on the 7th of August 1921, only a week after her son George died.



Birth Certificates

1851-1881 UK Census

1891-1921 Canadian Census

Last Will and Testament of Louisa Cutler, dated 1868

Last Will and Testament of John Cutler, dated 1841

Baptism, marriage – UK

Death certificate – BC Archives

“Old Homes and Families” by JK Nesbitt, Victoria Colonist, 13 June 1948

“Mrs Pauline died Last Night”, Victoria Daily Times, 8 August 1921

Union Brewery, Duke Street, Henley, 1874

Henley Advertiser 10 January 1874


December 20, 1873

FREDERICK PAULIN begs to inform his kind patrons that he has this day disposed of his Business as above to Messrs Byles & Co, of the Greys Brewery, Friday Street, Henley-on-Thames, for whom he solicits a continuance of the favours upon him.

FP desires to express his very sincere thanks to those kind friends whose support he has received, and begs to inform those whose accounts are unpaid, that Mr Paulin of New Street, Henley, will receive them and all accounts of which he is indebted, in order that they may be examined and discharged.

henley advertiser 10 jan 1874 - FP

Dictionary of Family Biography – Ernest Alfred Paulin

EA Paulin c1890
Ernest Alfred Paulin, circa 1890, c. G Leitch

Dictionary of Family Biography

Ernest Alfred Paulin

Ernest Alfred Paulin (1864-1912) was born the 22nd of July 1864 in Henley-on-Thames, England.  He was the son of Frederick Paulin, brewer, and his wife Mary Cutler.  He was one of thirteen children, their fourth eldest, and their third son.  He would go by the name Pauline between 1886 and 1897.

As far as can be determined, Ernest received a decent education.  His eldest brother Frederick stated in an interview that he had attended Grammar school in Henley, and St Mary’s College in London.  It is assumed that the boys who were raised in Henley received similar educational opportunities.

The family lived in Henley-on-Thames until 1873.  Frederick Paulin, who had owned a brewery in Henley, sold it that year and used the profits to purchase the Union Brewery in Peckham, London. Frederick declared bankruptcy in 1874, and the family moved to the West Midlands.  The family moved around the area for a few years, settling in Acock’s Green by 1880.

It was in Birmingham that Ernest began his working life.  In the 1881 census he was listed as a clerk.  It was here too that his love for sports becomes apparent.  He was the captain of the Acock’s Green Star Football (soccer) club.  His brother Frederick played forward.

On the 9th of March 1886 Ernest married Emma Jane Jennings at St Edburgha’s Church in Yardley.  She was the daughter of Thomas Jennings, butcher who also ran the Swan Pub in Yardley, and his wife Emma Newberry.

Not long after, the newlyweds were boarding the SS Adriatic in Liverpool.  With his brother Herbert Paulin and her sister Amy Jennings, they set off for North America.  They left the 12th of April.

On the 25th of October that year Ernest and Emma welcomed their first child, a daughter, Dorothy Mary.  Her birth was announced in the Victoria Colonist; her father was working as a reporter in the rival paper, The Standard.  He later became an accountant/bookkeeper for the firm of Matthew, Richards and Tye.

Victoria’s newspapers are full of Ernest’s activities.  He continued to be active in sports, competing in the city’s Caledonian games in the running high jump in 1887.  He was also the skipper of the Albion Cricket Club in 1892.  The whole family was musical, and Ernest was active in the Victoria Opera Company and was often noted in musical productions or performances.

In August 1887 Dorothy died of Cholera.  The following year, on March 5th, they welcomed their first son, Harold Ernest.  He was joined by a sister Irene Belle on the 17th September 1889, another sister Gladys Mary the 12th February 1891, and sister Grace Melona on the 8th of April 1893.  Sadly Gladys died March 13th 1892 from whooping cough.

From interviews with his grandchildren, it was felt that Emma was not very happy living in Victoria.  She packed up the children and moved back to Birmingham, England.  Ernest followed.  This was after 1894.  He found work as an accountant.

In Birmingham they had three more children: Norman Frederick born 11 August 11897 (or 21 October – the date his mother insisted he was really born); Hilda Louise 25 January 1899 and Eric Cutler the 27 November 1900.  Eric died in September 1901.

The family moved to Ilford, in London around 1905-6, where Ernest worked as a salesman for the Oliver Typewriter Company.  The family then moved to Leigh-on-Sea.  The move was precipitated by Ernest’s diagnosis of tuberculosis.  It was believed that sea air would help.

In August 1912 Ernest travelled back to visit his family in Victoria, alone.  The trip was in hopes that the change would improve his health. It did not.  After several weeks in Victoria, he died on the 20th of November.  He was buried at Ross Bay Cemetery.


Birth, marriage and death certificates

Scottish Field, December 1930

Oxon Brews: The Story of Commercial Brewing in Oxfordshire by Mike Brown, Longfield, Brewing History Society, 2004.

UK Census 1871-1881, 1901-1911

Canadian Census 1891

Daily Colonist, British Colonist, Birmingham Post

Shipping Records – manifest of passengers to the US; Canadian arrivals list; US Arrivals

Probate registry – England

Ross Bay Cemetery


Dictionary of Family Biography – Frederick Arthur Pauline

Dictionary of Family Biography

frederick pauline
Frederick Pauline, as speaker of the BC Legislature, c. BC Archives.

Frederick Arthur Paulin(e)

Frederick Arthur Paulin (1861-1955) was born the 19th of September 1861, in Henley-on-Thames, England.  He was the second child and first son of Frederick Paulin, brewer, and his wife Mary Cutler.  He was one of thirteen children.  He used the spelling Pauline from 1884 onwards.

Frederick received a good education, attending Henley’s Grammar School and St Mary’s College in London. The family lived in Henley until 1873, when his father sold the Union Brewery and used the profits to purchase the Anchor Brewery in Peckham, London.  When Frederick (Sr) went bankrupt, the family moved to the West Midlands, settling in Acock’s Green by 1880.

It was here that Frederick is shown in his first employ, as an accountant.  While in Birmingham he was the forward to the Acock’s Green Star football (soccer) club.  His younger brother Ernest was the captain.

In 1883 Frederick made the life-changing decision to emigrate to Canada. It is believed his brother George joined him.  The duo first settled in Winnipeg.  In an interview done years later, he said that he moved to Victoria after experiencing winter there. Once in Victoria he began using the spelling of Pauline.  There are no explanations as to why the “e” was added.

Frederick’s first job was as a reporter for the Victoria Colonist.  He then returned to accountancy, working first for S Leiser, then to J Piercy & Co on Yates Street.  He then went into partnership with Piercy.  It was a wholesale dry goods business.

On the 18th of March 1890 Frederick married Charlotte Mary Mesher, the daughter of George Mesher, a contractor in Victoria.  Together they had three children: Frederick Charles (1891-1948), Francis Hugh (1895-1896) and Oliver William (1898-2000).

In 1911 Frederick retired from his dry goods business and went into politics.  He first served on Victoria City Council, and the Board of Trade.  In 1916 he was elected member of the Legislative Assembly as a Liberal, for Saanich.  While MLA and during the First World War, he served on a commission of inquiry into the BC provincial elections.  This necessitated a visit to BC soldiers serving overseas in 1917.  In 1920-22 he served as deputy speaker for the Legislature, and from 1923-24 he was the speaker.

In 1925 Mount Curly on the British Columbia/Alberta Border was renamed Mount Pauline in his honour.  That same year he was named BC Agent General in London, a post he held until 1931.  Frederick then settled down to a second retirement.

He died on the 30 June 1955, and is buried in Ross Bay Cemetery.


Scottish Field, December 1930.  (30 Oct 2012)

Reading Mercury, Victoria Colonist


BCGNIS – Mount Pauline

Oxon Brews: The Story of Commercial Brewing in Oxfordshire by Mike Brown, Longfield, Brewing History Society, 2004.

Birth, Marriage, Death certificates

UK Census 1871-1881

Canadian Census 1891-1911


Dictionary of Family Biography – Frederick Paulin (1831-1918)

Dictionary of Family Biography

fred paulin

Frederick Paulin(e)

Frederick Paulin (1831-1918) was born the 5th of August 1831 in Henley-on-Thames, England.  He was the son of George Paulin, hairdresser, and his wife Sarah Clements.  He was their second child, and only son.  His sister Sarah Ann was born in 1829.  He used the spelling Pauline from 1888 until his death.

There is no direct evidence that Frederick had any formal education, however there are indications that he did.  There was a grammar school in Henley, and George Paulin was very prosperous, and could have afforded to send his only son to school.  Frederick was literate, and in his later years worked as an accountant.

In the 1851 UK census Frederick was still living with his parents on Bell Street in Henley, working both as a hairdresser and as a malting agent.  In 1860 he was living in Regent’s Park, London working as a brewer.

It is unclear when or how Frederick moved to London and met Mary Cutler, the daughter of the late John Cutler, gentleman, and his wife Louisa Freak.  On the 30th of September Mary gave birth to their first child, Louisa Mary Paulin Cutler, in St Pancras, London.  The birth certificate is a combination of fiction and fact, listing the father as Frederick Cutler, brewer.  There is no information as to why the couple were not married at this time, or if they lived together.  They eventually married the 10th of February 1861, at St Pancras Church.  The couple moved back to the Henley area, living across the Thames in Remenham, with Mary’s mother Louisa, and her half-brother Edward.  In 1871 the family was living near Frederick’s parents on New Street in Henley.  Through the 1860s and early 1870s Frederick was the owner of the Union Brewery and pub.  He was also the licensee of the Rifle Beerhouse.  At this time it appears that his father George also owned two pubs, which he leased out: the Everley House and the Halfway House.

The family continued to grow.  In addition to Louisa and Frederick (Jr), Frederick and Mary had a further seven children: George (1863-1921), Ernest (1864-1912), Herbert (1866-1931), Bessie (1868-1947), Amy (1869-1931), Florence (1871-1950) and Violet (1873-1956).

During his years in Henley, Frederick had a very active social life.  There is an account in the Oxford Journal (8 July 1854) which puts Frederick rowing for Henley in the Henley Regatta for the Challenge Cup.  Wargrave beat his team.  Through the 1860s and early 1870s Frederick was an active member of the Henley Elocution Society, as well as the Henley Reading Chess and Music Society.

At the end of 1873 Frederick sold his brewing business and with the proceeds and a loan from his father, bought the Anchor Brewery in Peckham, London.  This must have been seen as an opportunity to serve a larger market, and was not located in an unknown area, as his mother-in-law, who still lived with the family had a number of nieces and nephews living nearby.  The family moved there and began their new venture.  In June Louisa Cutler died in Peckham, and in October they welcomed their 10th child, Sarah (aka Sally or Sadie) (1874-1959).

In July 1874 Frederick declared bankruptcy.  The family then moved to the West Midlands.  In 1875 Frederick was a brewer in Tipton, and in November that year their eleventh child, Marion (aka Polly) (1875-1958) was born in Prince’s End.  John Paulin (1877-1923) was born in Gospel End, and their last child Nellie (1879-1954) was born in Acock’s Green, in Birmingham.  The family appears to have settled down, and lived in a home they called “Henley Lodge” on the Yardley Road in Acock’s Green.  Frederick was now working as an accountant.  It appears that they family made a comfortable living, as in 1881 the family employed a domestic servant.

By the 1880s, his older children were coming into adulthood.  Frederick (Jr) and Ernest were both employed as accountants/clerks.  In 1883 Frederick (Jr) and George Paulin emigrated to Canada.  They were followed in 1886 by Ernest and his new wife Emma, and Herbert. They all settled in Victoria, British Columbia.

Frederick went to his father and sold him annuities his wife had inherited from her mother.  He put up part of his eventual inheritance from his father as security.  The £5000 funded the move of the rest of the family to Victoria.  Ultimately the whole family moved to Canada except their eldest daughter Louisa, who had married Robert Rutherford that year, and decided to stay in Birmingham.

In Victoria, Frederick added the “e” to the end of his name.  He worked variously as an advertiser, real estate agent, secretary of the Turkish Bath, and an insurance agent.  By 1897 he had bought the Tod House in Oak Bay, and had set out to live the life of an English country gentleman.  He stopped working.  During his retirement he became and artist, and held exhibitions in Victoria.

Frederick died the 13th of June 1918, at the age of 87.  He died with an estate valued at $1 – the land was mortgaged, and he left no personal estate.  He is buried in Ross Bay Cemetery with his wife, who died in 1921.


Birth/Baptism certificates

UK Census – 1851-1881

Canadian Census – 1891-1911

Oxon Brews: The Story of Commercial Brewing in Oxfordshire by Mike Brown, Longfield, Brewing History Society, 2004.

British Columbia Estate documents, GR 1304, BC Archives

The London and Suburban Licensed Victuallers’ Hotel and Tavern Keepers’ Directory,London, Henry Downes Miles, 1874.

Fort Victoria Brick Project – City of Victoria Archives

City Directories – Henley-on-Thames, Birmingham, Victoria

Ross Bay Cemetery, BC

Reading Mercury, Oxford Journal, British Colonist, Berkshire Chronicle, and the Birmingham Daily Post

Experiments in Genealogy – Facebook, 2018

So here was my question – does Facebook help with genealogy.  So far I have used it only to connect to other genealogists, for advice, events, etc.  But I have wondered, can it be used to connect family members together?

So I have decided to organise a Facebook page for my Paulin(e) family.  I thought since I was already committed to organising a family reunion next year, using Facebook might be a way to connect everyone before the event, and also connect those who are interested in the family, but want to limit their meeting to the virtual world.

So let me introduce you to “The Amazing Paulin Family” page. Here I have organised a bunch of posts to feature pictures of the family that I have, and hopefully family members will also post their pictures as well.  And if there are questions about the family’s history, the questions can go around to those that are involved.  Hopefully interesting answers will result.  I certainly hope for interesting stories. This is designed as a cooperative venture – the more the merrier.

So does Facebook help with directed genealogical research?  Can it bring together the descendants of the 13 children of Frederick Paulin(e) and his wife Mary Cutler?  Time will tell.

If you are related to these people – please join!


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