Gilliandr's Blog

Random Historical, Social and Cultural Moments



St Andrew’s Day, Bombay, 1867


Stirling Observer, 10 January 1867, page 2


St Andrew’s Day in Bombay – St Andrew’s Day was celebrated by the Scottish residents in Bombay by a public banquet.  Upwards of 200 gentlemen were present.  The dinner seems to have been a great success, although not honoured by the presence of the governor, as had been anticipated; but the commander-in-chief was present, and his manner of bearing on this his first public appearance, in Bombay would appear to have created a favourable impression.


St Andrew’s Day, London, England, 1888

Whistable Times and Herne Bay Herald, 8 Dec 1888, page 7


St Andrew’s Day

Friday being St Andrew’s Day, the Patron Saint of Scotland, the band of the Scots Guards played a choice selection of Scotch airs under the portico of the courtyard at St James Palace in the morning during the ceremony of mounting and changing the Queen’s Guard.  The sergeants of the 1st Battalion of the regiment gave a dance at Wellington Barracks in the evening, and the annual dinners of the various London Scottish societies in the metropolis took place at night; while Mr Ritchie, MP, presided at the annual festival of the Scottish Corporation at the Hotel Metropole, and the usual Scottish National concerts were held at the Albert Hall and other places.

St Andrew’s Day, Montreal, 1880

Montreal Gazette, 1 December 1880, page 5

St Andrew’s Day

The Celebration Yesterday

The Annual Meeting – The Sermon in Crescent Street Church

Our Scottish citizens are celebrated for the fervour with which they celebrate their national anniversaries, and the recurrence of any of the days in which the children of the land of “brown heath and shaggy wood” take delight is ever looked forward to with interest in Montreal.  They are always pleasant occasions, and happily they are frequent. It is only a short time ago since we were called upon to record the festival of Halloween, and to-day the pre-eminently national festival of St Andrew, the patron saint of the land of “mountain and the flood” invites attention. The mode in which it was observed was characteristic; business in the morning, Divine service in the afternoon, and pleasure in the evening. Nor was the Scottish emblem wanting on the occasion, for the purple heather was to be frequently seen on the dress of the Scotch people, who are distinguished perhaps above all others by an abiding love for their fatherland.

The annual meetings- Caledonian Society – Special meeting

The annual meeting of the Caledonian Society was held in the lecture room of Crescent Street Church, at 2 o’clock. The President, Mr Thos Robins, occupied the chair.

After routine business, it was moved by Mr Wm Angus, seconded by Mr James Wright, and unanimously resolved, “That the sum of $100 be donated to the charitable fund of the St Andrew’s Society.”

It was then resolved on motion of Mr P Fulton, seconded by Mr J Wright, “That the President, Mr Thos Robins and the secretary, Mr J Hood, be a deputation to present the amount at the St Andrew’s Society meeting.

St Andrew’s Society

The annual meeting of the St Andrew’s Society was held immediately after that of the Caledonian Society, for the installation of its officers elected at the meeting on the 4th November.

The Committee of Condolence, in reference to the death of members of the Society reported.

In reference to a sum of £34 13s 6d Canadian currency, handed to the Society some twenty-five years ago, on the death of a Scotchman named Gilchrist, it was reported that the amount, with interest, in all, $334.62 has been made over to the heirs of the deceased, who have attained their majority.

The deputation from the Caledonian Society to acquaint the meeting with the resolution of that Society, voting the amount of $100 to the charitable fund of the St Andrew’s Society, were received, and a vote of thanks passed to the Caledonian Society.

At the conclusion of some routine business, the meeting was adjourned, and the members of the two societies attended the service in Crescent street Presbyterian Church.

The Annual Sermon

In the afternoon the Rev AB MacKay preached the annual sermon to the members and friends of St Andrew’s Society in Crescent Street Presbyterian Church, taking as the basis of his address the character of the Apostle Andrew as set forth in the 1st and 6th chapters of St John’s Gospel.  The preacher said that it was sometimes rather difficult to find a suitable subject for a special occasion, but their subject stared them in the face that afternoon; what could he more appropriate at a meeting of St Andrew’s Society on St Andrew’s day that to direct their attention to the character of St Andrew, or, as all the children of God are saints, we will say simply “Andrew”.  There are, he proceeded, a great many traditions about Andrew.  He is the patron saint of Russia as well as Scotland. But these are mere cobwebs of the dark ages, and we will go back to the fountain head and see what the bible says about Andrew, and seek to imitate him.  There are few characters more worthy of imitation.  The first characteristic we notice in him is that he put himself in the way of getting good. There was a great movement in connection with the preaching of John the Baptist; and amongst those who went to hear the rough preacher was Andrew; who, however, was not like the fickle crowd, but became one of John’s disciples, and stuck to him through thick and thin.  The Scotch people as a whole imitate St Andrew in this.  They are pre-eminently a religious people, a church going and Sabbath keeping people. Yes, like Andrew, Scotchmen are noted all the world over, for their pertinacity, clinging to the faith which they have inherited from their forefathers; but they do not all at all times put themselves in the way of getting food. Some attend church only once on a Sunday, and this as a mere matter of form.  But Andrew did more than put himself in the way of getting good; he did something better than follow John, who was only “a voice crying in the wilderness,” a finger post pointing to the lamb of God.  As John cried, “behold the Lamb of God,” Andrew left John and followed Jesus. We should imitate Andrew in this also.  A great company of Scotchmen follow Andrew when he merely puts himself in the way of getting good, but that company becomes much smaller when Andrew follows the Lord Jesus Christ and takes Him for his Saviour.  Scotchmen are great seekers. Here they are in Canada; they are in India, and all over the world, doing the world’s rough work, and sometimes governing the world, seeking glory and happiness.  Andrew teaches us to seek first the kingdom of God and his righteousness when all other things will be added to us. Jesus had had his eye upon Andrew, and when he saw him following Him, He said : “What seek ye?” Andrew answered, “Master, where dwellest though?” when Jesus gave the wonderful invitation, “come and see me,” an invitation to the fisherman Andrew from the Son of the Highest to dwell with Him,, and to get solution of the difficulties that beset his soul. Jesus receives ever true seeker in like manner today.  We have heard of the philosopher who jumped out if his bath and ran through the streets, crying “Eureka, Eureka, I have found it” but how much more blessed are those who, like Andrew can say “We have found the Messiah.” Then Andrew confessed the truth.  Having found the Messiah, he could not hold his tongue, but overcame his natural reticence, and went and told others, and was the honored instrument of bringing his brother, Simon Peter, to Christ.  A glib-like chatter about the highest things is very offensive, and should be reproved.  There is too much lip-religion in the world, not there should be nevertheless, a fearless acknowledgement of God, for it is written: “If thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shall believe in thine heart that God hath raised Him from the dead, thou shall be saved.”

The Rev gentleman referred in proud terms to men like Rutherford, Knox, Chalmers, Livingstone and Duff, who had rendered Scotland famous throughout the world. He alluded in eloquent terms to Scotland’s many glories and precious memories, and concluded by expressing the hope that all the families represented in that Church would meet in unbroken ranks around the throne of God.

The Ball.

The annual ball was held at the Windsor Hotel and proved what everyone anticipated it would be a grand success and from the hour of 10 o’clock when most of the guests had arrived the noble dining room which has been the scene of so many gatherings of a similar character presented a very striking appearance.  The tout ensemble as the visitors entered the room was as may easily be imagined an extremely brilliant one, and though there have been larger gatherings, especially those graced by royal or vice-regal presence, it is a question whether any have excelled that of last night in beauty.  The fact that amongst those present there were a number of officers of the 5th Royal Scots in full highland uniform, in addition to those of other battalions, lent to the scene that peculiarly attractive character which their bright and picturesque dress never fails to impart.

Shortly after 9 o’clock a procession was formed, the president of the Society and invited guests, preceded by the stalwart pipers of the 5th Royal Scots, in full uniform, at its head, and entered the ball-room, and a few moments after the following programme was commenced, Gruenwald’s excellent orchestra furnishing the music: –


  1. Strathspey …”Miss Drummond ofPerth.”

Reel……………”Cameron’s Got his Wife again.”

  1. Quadrille………..”Bonnie Dundee”
  2. Waltz……….”Tres Jolie”
  3. Galop……… “Flamina”
  4. Lancers….”Lord of Lorne”
  5. Polka…..”Marietta”
  6. Cotillon….”the Campbells are Coming”
  7. Waltz….”Chantilly”
  8. Strathspey …….”Marquis of Huntly”

Reel “The Devil amang the Tailors”

  1. Quadrille…… ‘Edinburgh”
  2. Galop ….”Raquet”
  3. Waltz….”Brune ou Blonde?”
  4. Lancers….”Little Duke”
  5. Polka….”Gisela”
  6. Cotillon “March of the Cameron Men”
  7. Waltz … “A Toi!”
  8. Quadrille…..”Chilperic”
  9. Strathspey….”Lady Mary McKay”

Reel ….”Duchess of Roxburgh”

  1. Waltz….”Fleurs de St Petersburg”
  2. Lancers,…. « Minnet »
  3. Waltz….. « Le Retour des Hirondelles »
  4. Galop…. « Carambolage »
  5. Waltz….. »Les Sirenes »
  6. Sir Roger de Coverley

The guests present numbered probably one hundred and fifty, and the gathering partook much of that family nature, the more welcome because so rare on occasions of the sort. Every one knew every one else, and there were but few of those sets and cliques which occasionally mar the true enjoyment of a public ball. Another feature of the ball was the presence of a number of debutantes in society of whom we may justly say that they will fairly uphold the reputation of Montreal belles for beauty and grace.  Concerning the dresser while there were none particularly striking, it may be said that as a whole there was much display of taste, and a number of costumes were of a most elegant nature. The fact that a spectator fails to remember the details of a costume which had taken his fancy, has often been cited as proof that the fair wearer was well dressed, inasmuch as the effect, as a whole, was pleasing to the eye without their being anything of a marked nature.  So of an assemblage of the fair sex it may be said, with equal justice, that where the eye failed to remark any particularly noteworthy dresses, the presumption naturally is, that all were well dressed.  And of the ladies present last night, we many say truly that their costumes as a whole were thoroughly elegant and tasteful; and as we have already remarked, the scene, in which their rich costumes blended with the military uniforms, both contrasting with the somber black of the civilian, was a very brilliant one. Nor was its brilliancy confined to the ball-room itself the corridors and salons each contributing their quota, and the richly furnished rooms peopled for the nonce with loungers resting from the pleasurable fatigues of the stirring Scottish music, or the ravishing melodies of waltz floated through the hall, with dowagers and chaperons, and last with the inevitable wall flowers who don’t dance, afforded throughout the evening, or rather the night, a vista the charm of which it would be difficult to surpass.  From the opening of the programme until the hour for supper was announced, every dance was indulged in with zest, those of a national character, the reels, strathspeys and the cotillions, calling forth any amount of energy.  Soon after midnight the President and pipers led the way to the supper room, where was laid out a sumptuous banquet in that recherché style for which the Windsor is so well know. Amongst the viands, it is needless to say that the time-honored haggis had a prominent place, and roused the usual enthusiasm.  Though there were no set toasts, one was proposed, which was in every way appropriate, that of the new President of the St Andrew’s Society, Mr James Stewart, a sentiment which Mr. Rawlings, President of the St George’s Society, gave in most fitting terms, and to which Mr Stewart responded very happily, calling forth much applause.  After supper, during which the usual “extras” found many a participant who preferred dancing to the more prosaic indulgences of the board, the programme was resumed and kept up until what may so fittingly be called in the present instance the “wee sma’ hours.”

The Invited guests included the presidents of the various national societies, and amongst those in the room, who wore the badge of office, we noticed Messrs Edward Rawlings, President St George’s Society; Thomas Robin, President Caledonian Society; Hon TJJ Loranger, President St Jean Baptiste Society; FB McNamee, President St Patrick’s Society; Wm Wilson, President St Patrick’s National society; John H Mooney, President Irish Protestant Benevolent Society; WC Munderlob, President German Society; and W J Ingram, representing the St Andrew’s Society of New York.  His Worship Mayor Rivard was also invited. The Corporation was represented by Alds Gilman, Hagar and others.

To refer again to the ladies’ costumes it is not our purpose to enter into any detailed descriptions. There seemed so decided a preference on the part of the great majority of ladies that their names should not appear in print.  We may perhaps, however, be pardoned for mentioning one or two which specially arrested our glance, as beckoning more than ordinary elegance. Amongst these the heliotropes velvet Princess robe, trimmed with satin of a similar shade, and rich Valenciennes lace, worn by Mrs Alderman Mooney, was particularly handsome. Mrs JR Hutchins’ costume of deep maroon silk, with trimming of acre silk and lace was a favourite [illegible] coming. Miss L Bethune wor a charming dress of similar shade, and Miss Geraldine Bethune appeared in white as did also Miss C Abbott.  But were we to continue, it would be difficult to know where to stop, and so reluctantly when we recall the beauties of many a ravishing toilette, but advisedly perhaps, when we consider our inability to do them justice, we leave the subject and the ball concerning which we have only to repeat once more, that the St Andrew’s Ball of 1880 was a great success.

Owing to the fact that there was no correct list of those present obtainable, we are unable to give the names of those who attended.




12th of July, Montreal, 1877

Montreal Daily Star, 12 July 1877, page 2

The Twelfth – Last Words

This is the Twelfth of July, the recognized anniversary of the Orangemen.  They intend commemorating it in a quiet, unobtrusive manner, by going to church and hearing a sermon.  They have made every concession asked of them by the public, and will display no insignia whatever.  They will offend, directly or indirectly, the prejudices of none and we therefore warn whoever may, in  spite of all that is done, be criminal enough to attack them, that the consequences will not be light.  We warn all persons disposed to violence, to beware of breaking the peace.


Montreal Daily Star, 13 July 1877, page 2


The Events of Yesterday

Upon the calmest consideration of the events of yesterday, and in view of the enormity of the disgrace cast  upon the fair name of Montreal, it is hard indeed, to coolly review the shameful disorders perpetuated under the very eye of authority, we cannot too strongly condemn the inaction which was observed from the first, by those in whose hands was reposed the care of the public safety.  Ample warning was given of the probabilities of the day, but no preparatory action, calculated to keep the streets clear and obviate the chances of a collision, were taken.  The Police force, as a fact was held back until after murder had been committed, and the mob held possession of the streets, and even then, when representative citizens waited upon the Mayor, and asked him if he had made any further arrangements for preserving the peace of the city, they were told “We are doing all we can to have good order preserved by the duly appointed civic force, the Police,” and when the Chief of Police, an officer whose hands appear to have been tied all day, stated positively that he needed military force to assist his limited organization, he was told by the Mayor that he was not inclined to call out the military. The deputation was treated cavalierly, the Police Superintendent snubbed, and all that was done was to send out a detective to see if the crowd were still in the streets.

The Mayor could not pretend that the elements of disorder had not been apparent from an early hour in the day.  It was made plain that the gangs of roughs who congregated in the streets were bent upon mischief, and waited only the first pretence of a cause to commence trouble; and upon the slightest demonstration of a color, not borne by Orangemen, but by unprotected women, they broke out, and the result was the murder of poor Hackett, and the thrashing of Mr Henshaw within an inch of his life. No precautions appear to have been taken to avoid a collision such as there was reason to expect, even with the Orangemen giving up their intention of walking; on the contrary, every latitude was given the disorderly, and despite the volume of force actually at hand to repress disturbance, it may be said that the mob was wantonly allowed to take possession of the city and work its nefarious will unopposed.  The citizens of Montreal will not, we are sure, allow such trifling with an immense responsibility to pass unregarded, but will call to a proper account whoever is chargeable with the prolongation of a period of disorder.

The Orangemen fulfilled their obligations to the letter.  They refrained from any act which might be construed into a demonstration.  They attended divine service, but not in procession as a body, and when it was over they withdrew in the same way.  Their path to and from the church was surrounded by roughs hungrily watching an opportunity of strife; while in the church hostile crowds were around the edifice, but the Orangemen offered offence by word, look, gesture or deed to none, and they must be held blameless.  The conduct of those who sought occasion of molesting them and devoted a day and a night finding it carries its own condemnation.  Henceforward, if party processions are to be longer tolerated, it will not be for good citizens to turn Orangemen from their design of parading, but to assist them, and teach those who seek to oppose them the sternest of lessons.

The mob held the streets yesterday, must never be permitted to repeat the outrage, be the cost what it may.

Orange Celebration, Montreal, 1877

Montreal Daily Star, 5 July 1877, page 2

The Orange Celebration

A deputation of Orangemen waiting upon then mayor yesterday for the purpose of making affidavits respecting certain parties, whom they said threatened violence.  His Worship directed the deputation to the Police Magistrate.  A formal request for protection on the 12th inst during “a peaceable religious ceremony” has been made.  The Mayor replied that, as the Orange body is not legally constituted, the members can only be accorded the same protection “that every citizen is individually entitled to under ordinary circumstances.” His Worship expresses the hope that the celebration will be held wholly indoors.

St Andrew’s Day, Montreal, 1922

Montreal Gazette, 30 Nov 1922, page 12

St Andrew’s Day

This is a red letter day for Scotchmen, in which heather, bagpipes, Scottish national music and dances are indissolubly intertwined; the memory of Scotia’s patron saint being a very tender and sacred on to Scotsmen all over the world. Patriotism and clannish pride are marked characteristics of the Scottish peoples, which instead of lessening shows quite an opposite inclination.  Most people admire the irish for their fervent love of St Patrick; the English for their attachment to St George, and the Welsh their pride in St David, no less than the Scotch for their glory in the name of St Andrew. There was a considerable difference in the life work of St Andrew and other patron saints, just as there was in the times in which they lived and their nationality, but like his confreres, St Andrew brilliantly and nobly served his day and generation, leaving a pattern and example worthy of imitation.  The memory of great men who have nobly served their fellows is one of the most precious possessions that any country or people can have.  It is quite appropriate that the memory of St Andrew should be kept alive and green and the anniversary observed as the years roll on.  St Andrew’s memory will remain as an inspiration to Scotch folk throughout the cycles of time.

St Andrew’s anniversary in Canada always calls forth much enthusiasm and gathering of the clans, and the Scottish race are to be commended for the patriotism, fervor and zeal in not allowing the date to pass by unnoticed in Montreal.  Moses Harvey was right when he averred: “Great men are not the mere products of the times in which they live, the epitome of their age, the cessations of those formative currents of thought that are traversing the masses.  Great men are the gifts of kind heaven to our poor world; instruments by which the Highest One works out His designs; light radiators to give guidance and blessing to the travellers of time.  Though far above us, they are felt to be our brothers; and their elevation shows us what vast possibilities are wrapped up in our common humanity.  They beckon us up the gleaming heights to whose summits they have climbed.  Their deeds are the woof of this world’s history.”  Such a one was St Andrew of Scotland.

St David’s Day is Observed Here, Montreal, 1931

Montreal Daily Star, 2 March 1931, page 16

St David’s Day is observed here

Welshmen Celebrate event with special church service

The annual celebration of St David’s Day, the festival of the patron saint of Wales, took place yesterday, members of the St David’s society and the Welsh Presbyterian group holding their service jointly with the congregation of Stanley Presbyterian church, Westmount, last evening, in the latter church.  Rev WH Jones, chaplain of St David’s Society, conducted the service, special music being sung by the choir under the direction of Merlin Davies.

A bright future for the world’s little nations was pictured by Mr Jones in his sermon.  Outlook he defined as the result of self-examination in the light of divine inspiration.  The nation which cannot see with the eyes of faith a future brighter than anything in the past, is on the road to decline and degeneration he said.  One of the needs of the day is more solitude for communion with God.  The person or group making the most noise is not always making the most progress, he said.

A nation with strong religious ties, he continued, was bound to be optimistic in outlook and sure to find the future brighter and better than the past.  By believing and seeking, the realisation of the dreams, trusting in the good that the future has to held out, a nation is in a fair way to bring its own hopes to realisation.  As with other countries, the best for Wales is still to come, he concluded with greater men to appear than those of the past.

Dr Evan Lewis delivered an illustrated lecture on Wales, showing lantern slides of Welsh beauty spots, and a male choir from St David’s society sang a number of the national songs.

The annual banquet and dance of St David’s Welsh Society is being held this evening in the Windsor Hotel, the principal speaker being Hon Athanase David.

Commemoration Stuff – Confessions of a Collector, 2017

It is 2017 and Canadian Confederation turned 150.  There have been parties, books, television specials and commemorative things – tons of commemorative things!  As a historian I can look on these items as representative of a vision of Canadian identity, and recognize that not everyone invests in the celebration and the souvenir items the same values.  And certainly I am aware of the conflict of identity particularly evident in the celebrations of 150, as I feel some of it myself.  But the stuff, people, the stuff.  I am not immune to the draw of the commemorative item.

I was born in 1967, so I have always been drawn to 1967 stuff.  As I was not aware of the significance of the events in that year, so I started to collect items from ’67 a lot later on.

As you can see from the above I have a rather eclectic collection of things – two pins, a Blue Mountain mug, a souvenir brochure and a bunch of the coins taken from circulation.  Of course 1967 was also Expo ’67, and I went there with my parents, in my pram, as a very wee babe.  I don’t remember it, but it was apparently quite wonderful.  Mom and Dad saved the souvenir programme, which I still have.  And, over the years I have added things from Expo to my collection of commemorative stuff (aided and abetted by the fact that I worked at Value Village for a year).

commemorative stuff (5)So what is the attraction?  I guess it is a way to reinforce the fact that the year I was born in was special.  It was special because I was born that year, but it had that extra something – something.  And so having things which speak to that special-ness is important to me.

Fast forward to Canada 125 – and of course my twenty-fifth birthday.  That year I decided to celebrate my birthday with a party with the theme of the “Silver Anniversary” of my birth, and Canada had another party in Ottawa, and the Queen was there.  All good, in my mind.  I was becoming politically aware by this time, and so I was more realistic about what I was celebrating.  I didn’t get many items commemorating the anniversary, but I do remember that I felt I should get something, and the Canadian government actually had a way for you to order official souvenir items.  So I bought some stuff. I also had a pin which was not so official…..

A rather modest haul, but there weren’t that many items actually available in that year.  I don’t think that people were as keen to celebrate, or didn’t recognise the number as being particularly special.  And I was (and still am actually) rather cheap about things so I wasn’t go to be extravagant anyway.

It is now Canada 150 and really this year, the number of items you can purchase is almost obscene.  Really, I am a bit flummoxed by the quantity and variety of items available.  There are a lot of items that have been produced that perhaps are tacky, some which are expensive, some which are both, but then there are also the vanilla items, which I am strangely drawn to.  And those are the ones I have bought.  I have acquired a few pins and the commemorative coins put out by the Canadian mint.  I am not sure why there is a glow in the dark coin in the mint’s collection, but okay.


There is this impulse, I think for people, like myself, who collect things.  Events such as anniversaries are marker moments which we need to physically hold onto.  I have bought things that commemorate Canada 150 in order to remember the significance of the event.  I think that it is a special moment to remember and I am proud to be Canadian (To be  clear though, I am also realistic about Canada, and well aware that there are things that are not praiseworthy). It is also my 50th year.  And it is something that I am both happy and rather freaked out about at the same time.  So these things mark the passage of personal time, and of place and memory.

So I confess, I have commemorative items.  A fair number if taken altogether.  I think I have some pretty neat stuff, and there it is.  I understand not everyone is going to understand my fascination for commemorative Canadian things, and I am alright about that.  I have invested in them a personal history which stands both apart and a part of the event which they commemorate.


Cartier Centenary Fair, Montreal, 1919

Montreal Standard, 2 August 1919, page 33


The Cartier Centenary Fair

The Cartier Centenary Fair which is to be held in this city from August 9th to 17th inclusive on a 12 acre portion of Fletcher’s Field, is of great importance to all of the citizens of Montreal from a commercial and advertising standpoint.

The foremost aim of the promoters of the Cartier Centenary fair is to raise the required sum of money that is necessary to complete the approaches of the Cartier Memorial, which has been erected by the people of Canada to commemorate the memory of Sir George Etienne Cartier.

Canadian history contains the records of many men who have done much for the Dominion, but no man mentioned in those historical chronicles who was more steadfast in his ideals for his native land, than Cartier.

It was at St Antoine on the Richelieu river on September 6th, 1814, that Cartier first saw the light of day.  He did not enter public life until 1848 when he was thirty-four years of age, but the subsequent twenty-five years of his life he devoted entirely to the public welfare of the Dominion, and was active in the affairs of this nation as minister of militia and defence at the time of his death in London, England, in 1873.

Cartier was one of the fathers of Confederation, and during his career succeeded in having many important laws passed.

Confederation originally consisted only of four provinces of Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. It was Cartier’s desire to see Canada established as a united country stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific.  With the maritime as well as land power of the east and west connected by a great transcontinental railway system.

In a letter to Cartier complimenting him on his achievement, Lord Dufferin wrote as follows:

“The distinction you have won has not been merely personal, for your name is incorporated with the most eventful and most glorious epoch of your country’s history, commencing as it does with your entrance into political life, and culminating in that consolidation of the provinces to which your genius, courage and ability so materially contributed.”

Largely through the efforts of Cartier, the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta were secured from the Hudson Bay Company on very advantageous terms and added to the Dominion.  Finally in 1871 Cartier succeeded in passing a bill in Parliament which made British Columbia  the only remaining province needed to round out the link, a portion of the Dominion.

With the admission of British Columbia, Cartier’s dream of a united Canada from sea to sea became a reality. But a trans-continental railway was necessary to bind the provinces closely together. Cartier was the strongest advocate of this immense undertaking and to him belongs the glory of having secured in 1872 the first charter for the Canadian Pacific Railway.  This was the last great triumph of his career.

The first Canadian line of ships that plyed the seas was also another invaluable adjunct to commerce established by Cartier for the Dominion.

From 1861 to 1872, Cartier was one of the representatives of Montreal, first in the parliament of United Canada, and later in the House of Commons.  He represented during a portion of that period, Montreal-East in the Quebec Legislature under the system of dual representation which existed for some time after the establishment of the Confederation.

The interests of Montreal were always dear to the heart of Cartier and throughout his public career he strove to promote greater welfare and development for this city.

One concrete example of this was his promotion of the Grand Trunk Railway which has done much for the development of Eastern Canada and of Montreal in particular.

It is particularly fitting that the celebration, which was to have taken place originally in 1914, should be given at this time, because Cartier took advantage of every public utterance to impress upon his fellow countrymen the necessity of loyalty to Great Britain.

In a speech delivered in London, England, in 1869 he stated the following: “Canadians know, that if they wish to become really great they have only to continue their union with the Mother Country so as to share in her power, her prestige and glory.” What could have been a more prophetic warning than this?

The future too, when Canadians share with Great Britain in the power and prestige, of peace, will prove to the citizens of the Dominion that they owe undying gratitude to the memory of the great patriot of the early days, Sir George Etienne Cartier.

Miss Hortense Cartier, daughter of this illustrious statesman, who is shortly to be guest of the Dominon, is expected to arrive on the SS La France on August 9th the opening day of the celebration that is given in memory of her father.

A day, the date of which has not yet been decided upon is to be set aside in honor Miss Cartier.

No expense was spared in the erection of the magnificent fair grounds, which have been laid out in avenues that are named after the famous heads of the five allied nations.  King George, President Poincare, President Wilson, King Victor Emmanuel, King Albert.

Moorish design has been followed in the construction of the five score buildings which will contain the various exhibits of leading manufacturers.

While the first object of the Cartier Centenary Fair is to secure money for the completion of the Memorial it is also hoped that the exhibition will demonstrate the advantage of our annual exhibition for the city of Montreal.

A project of this sort would be of inestimable value to the city from an advertising angle, a fact the citizens of Montreal should bear in mind. As a yearly attraction of this nature would be of untold benefit to the whole population.

Business, big business in the future for Montreal is the fundamental principle of the Cartier Centenary Fair but amusement of the highest order, also forms a portion of the exhibition.

Nothing has been spared in the constructing of an enchanting white city with many thousands of twinkling lights for the enjoyment of the people of Montreal.  Likewise with the entertainment features, they are the best that can be procured from the wide selection that is offered by New York, Chicago and New Orleans.

The Midway

A huge midway, which will contain every sort of laughter-provoking device that ingenious minds can create is one of the leading features.  There will be booths along its wide avenues and where refreshments can be procured, two bands with well-known able directors will render the best music and a dancing pavilion has been erected.  In fact, nothing that can possibly add to the pleasure of a visitor has been omitted.

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