Montreal Gazette 9 September 1879, page 2
Health Map of Montreal
At the meeting of the Board of Health on Friday last, Messrs Hovey and Dawson, civil and sanitary engineers, presented a map of the city, showing the average annual death rate of each locality from small-pox, typhus and diphtheria. These averages were founded on the health situation of the years 1870-77 and 78. The areas of prevalence of the different diseases are distinguished by colours indicating the death-rate, according as it ranges from 0 to 5, from 5 to 10, from 10 to 15, from 15 to 20, or from 20 t o25 per 1,000. It can thus be seen with little trouble what portions of the city are most liable to these terrible epidemics. For instance the space from St David’s Lane to some distance beyond St Antoine street and St Joseph Street and a little beyond it, as far as Versailles street, and after that point to William street, and even the canal in another is indicated as having a mortality of from 25 to 30. Beyond Fulford street it diminishes to from 10 to 15 for small-pox and further still to from 5 to 10 for that and typhus. Again, between St Christophe and Seaton on the one hand, and between Lagauchetiere and Sherbrooke, on the other, there is a district subject, in various degrees, to diphtheria, typhus and small-pox especially the latter, the mortality being 15 to 20 per 1,000. Beyond these limits in the direction of the river’s course, St Mary’s Ward, and Hochelaga, small-pox prevails, but with a comparatively insignificant mortality. All through Cote St Louis, the mortality for small-pox and typhus is high- 15 to 20. About the centre of St Lawrence Ward there is a considerable tract where diphtheria attains a death-rate of 10 to 15. It then seems to make a leap over the region of which Victoria Square is the centre, and crossing St Antoine Street, it claims an area as peculiarly its own, on the outskirts of the large region of general unhealthiness, from Inspector to Fulford streets, already mentioned. In the centre of St Gabriel Village it claims another district forming an equilateral which is almost bisected by the GTR track. It must be recollected always that the rate of mortality is according to population, so in judging of the healthiness of the latter must be taken into consideration. When the relative populousness of the various areas is remembered, the significance of these figures will be modified. In some case the cause of insalubrities is at once evident- want of proper drainage, nature of ground, domestic habits of the people, opposition to vaccination. In other cases, the matter requires a little study, especially when there is a marked variance between districts not far apart. The map, however, greatly assists one in obtaining a general notion of the distribution of these three maladies throughout the city, and as such, ought to be generally appreciated.